A case study of municipal solid waste in Nepal compared to the situation in the European Union and Sweden

Gustav Larsson, Jakob Sahlén, Lennart Mårtensson, Sanjay Nath Khanal

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Nepal, situated in the Himalayan belt has a rapidly growing population together with high

urbanisation rate. These factors are currently causing problems connected to municipal solid

waste (MSW). E.g. leakage of hazardous substances to soil and surrounding aquatic systems,

spread of odour and naturally unfamiliar materials to natural biotopes, all of which generate

environmental damage and health problems. There are certain differences in waste generation

and waste composition between urban areas of Nepal. In order to retrieve a broad picture of

the current waste management situation, three population differentiated municipalities in

different areas of the country were investigated. Studies of the MSW regarding composition

and generation were conducted. Moreover, waste management in Nepal was compared with

the basic waste management in the European Union (EU) and Sweden. Landfill sites (LFS) in

Ghorahi Municipality, Pokhara Sub-metropolitan City and Kathmandu Metropolitan City

were studied. Our studies show differences in waste composition, generation and management

between the three locations. The differences are somewhat interconnected with population

size and tourism. Cities with higher population and more tourism tend to have a higher

generation and more diverse MSW. Nevertheless, the urban areas of Nepal are very much in

need of a more structured waste management system, a system more alike the waste

management of EU. Apart from structural problems, there are attitude and behavioural issues

that needs to be dealt with. Further studies regarding social patterns, attitude and behaviour,

as well as the economic flow of MSW, needs to be conducted in order to retrieve an even

broader picture and understand important underlying issues.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2010
EventLinnaeus ECO-TECH´10, Kalmar, Sweden, Nov 22-24, 2010 -
Duration: 1980-Jan-01 → …


ConferenceLinnaeus ECO-TECH´10, Kalmar, Sweden, Nov 22-24, 2010
Period80-01-01 → …

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified (21199)


  • solid waste
  • waste composition
  • waste generation


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