Actor-Observer differences in realism in confidence and frequency judgments

Carl Martin Allwood, Marcus Johansson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Taking a social psychological approach to metacognitive judgments, this study analyzed the difference in realism (validity) in confidence and frequency judgments (i.e., estimates of overall accuracy) between one’s own and another person’s answers to general knowledge questions. Experiment 1 showed that when judging their own answers, compared with another’s answers, the participants exhibited higher overconfidence, better ability to discriminate correct from incorrect answers, lower accuracy, and lower confidence. However, the overconfidence effect could be attributable to the lowest level of confidence. Furthermore, when heeding additional information about another’s answers the participants showed higher confidence and better discrimination ability. The overconfidence effect of Experiment 1 was not found in Experiment 2. However, the results of Experiment 2 were consistent with Experiment 1 in terms of discrimination ability, confidence, and accuracy. Finally, in both experiments the participants gave lower frequency judgments of their own overall accuracy compared with their frequency judgments of another person’s overall accuracy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)251-274
Number of pages23
JournalActa Psychologica
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Psychology (50101)
  • Applied Psychology (50102)
  • Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified (50999)


  • Confidence judgments
  • Frequency judgments
  • Metacognition
  • Realism
  • Social influence


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