Adaptive mobility-aware and reliable routing protocols for healthcare vehicular network

Nawaz Ali Zardari, Razali Ngah, Omar Hayat, Ali Hassan Sodhro

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Healthcare vehicles such as ambulances are the key drivers for digital and pervasive remote care for elderly patients. Thus, Healthcare Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (H-VANET) plays a vital role to empower the digital and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for the smart medical world. Quality of Service (QoS) performance of vehicular communication can be improved through the development of a robust routing protocol having enhanced reliability and scalability. One of the most important issues in vehicular technology is allowing drivers to make trustworthy decisions, therefore building an efficient routing protocol that maintains an appropriate level of Quality of Service is a difficult task. Restricted mobility, high vehicle speeds, and continually changing topologies characterize the vehicular network environment. This paper contributes in four ways. First, it introduces adaptive, mobility-aware, and reliable routing protocols. The optimization of two routing protocols which are based on changing nature topologies of the network used for vehicular networks has been performed, amongst them, Optimized Link State Routing (Proactive) and Ad-hoc on Demand Distance Vector (Reactive) are considered for Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and throughput. Furthermore, Packet Loss Ratio (PLR), and end-to-end (E2E) delay parameters have also been calculated. Second, a healthcare vehicle system architecture for elderly patients is proposed. Third, a Platoon-based System model for routing protocols in VANET is proposed. Fourth, a dynamic channel model has been proposed for the vehicle to vehicle communication using IEEE8011.p. To optimize the QoS, the experimental setup is conducted in a discrete Network Simulator (NS-3) environment. The results reveal that the AODV routing protocol gives better performance for PDR as well as for PLR and the communication link established is also reliable for throughput. Where OLSR produces a large average delay. The adoptive mobility-aware routing protocols are potential candidates for providing Intelligent Transportation Systems with acceptable mobility, high reliability, high PDR, low PLR, and low E2E delay.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7156-7177
Number of pages22
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022-May-16

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Communication Systems (20203)


  • ambulance
  • healthcare vehicles
  • mobility-aware
  • reliable
  • routing protocol


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