Antibodies to islet cell autoantigens, rotaviruses and/or enteroviruses in cord blood and healthy mothers in relation to the 2010-2011 winter viral seasons in Israel: a pilot study

L M Shulman, C S Hampe, A Ben-Haroush, Y Perepliotchikov, Fariba Vaziri-Sani, S Israel, K Miller, H Bin, B Kaplan, Z Laron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims

To determine whether antivirus and/or islet cell antibodies can be detected in healthy pregnant mothers without diabetes and/or their offspring at birth in two winter viral seasons.

Methods

Maternal and cord blood sera from 107 healthy pregnant women were tested for islet cell autoantibodies using radioligand binding assays and for anti-rotavirus and anti-CoxB3 antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results

Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 autoantibodies and rotavirus antibodies, present in both maternal and cord blood sera, correlated with an odds ratio of 6.89 (95% CI: 1.01-46.78). For five, 22 and 17 pregnancies, antibodies to GAD65, rotavirus and CoxB3, respectively, were detected in cord blood only and not in the corresponding maternal serum. In 10 pregnancies, rotavirus antibody titres in the cord blood exceeded those in the corresponding maternal serum by 2.5-5-fold. Increased antibody titres after the 20(th) week of gestation suggested CoxB3 infection in one of the 20 pregnancies and rotavirus in another.

Conclusion

The concurrent presence of GAD65 antibodies in cord blood and their mothers may indicate autoimmune damage to islet cells during gestation, possibly caused by cross-placental transmission of viral infections and/or antivirus antibodies. Cord blood antibody titres that exceed those of the corresponding maternal sample by >2.5-fold, or antibody-positive cord blood samples with antibody-negative maternal samples, may imply an active in utero immune response by the fetus. What's new? <list list-type="bulleted" id="dme12404-list-0001"> It has been hypothesized that viral infections initiate islet cell autoimmunity. Previous research suggests an association of viral infection in utero and islet autoimmunity. We found a significant correlation between glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 autoantibodies and anti-rotavirus in healthy mothers at delivery and in cord blood. The presence of antibodies in cord blood with antibody-negative mothers suggests an independent fetal immune response. Our findings support the hypothesis that viral infections during pregnancy damage fetal islet cells, triggering islet autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)681-685
Number of pages4
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Volume31
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Immunology in the medical area (30110)
  • Cell and Molecular Biology (30108)

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