Bone mineral density and lifestyle among female students aged 16-24 years

Carina Elgán, A. K. Dykes, G. Samsioe

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    The objective of the study was to investigate bone mineral density and bone turnover among female students aged 16-24 years in relation to lifestyle factors, such as dietary habits and physical activity, as well as physiological factors, such as age, body weight, and menstrual pattern. Female college and university students (n = 218) were given a validated questionnaire with 34 questions concerning diet, recreational physical activity, alcohol, smoking, menstrual pattern, weight gain and loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed using a heel bone scanner (DEXA). Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) levels were measured in urine samples. The data were analyzed by linear regression and multiple regression analysis. The mean BMD was 0.568 g/cm2. Multiple regression showed that hormonal age was a better predictor of high BMD and low bone mineral turnover than chronological age. The best model predicting high BMD was composed of physical activity, regular menstruation, hormonal age and body weight. Smoking, alcohol consumption and current calcium intake did not contribute to the model. A negative association between BMD and DPD was found, indicating an enhanced bone remodeling. A correlation was found between DPD and hormonal age, chronological age, sugar intake and time with irregular menses. In multiple regression analysis, hormonal age, high sugar intake and weight loss were the factors best predicting DPD. BMD was positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle, including a physically active life and healthy dietary habits without dieting. Our study shows that hormonal age is a stronger BMD predictor than chronological age. Menstrual disturbances might be an indication of a risk for low BMD and might therefore be a reason for measuring BMD among young females.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)91-98
    Number of pages7
    JournalGynecological Endocrinology
    Volume16
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2002

    Swedish Standard Keywords

    • Medical and Health Sciences (3)

    Keywords

    • bone mineral density
    • bone turnover
    • females
    • lifestyle

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