Human total, basal and activity energy expenditures are independent of ambient environmental temperature

X. Zhang, Y. Yamada, H. Sagayama, P. N. Ainslie, E. E. Blaak, M. S. Buchowski, G. L. Close, J. A. Cooper, S. K. Das, L. R. Dugas, M. Gurven, A. El Hamdouchi, S. Hu, N. Joonas, P. Katzmarzyk, W. E. Kraus, R. F. Kushner, W. R. Leonard, C. K. Martin, E. P. MeijerM. L. Neuhouser, R. M. Ojiambo, Y. P. Pitsiladis, G. Plasqui, R. L. Prentice, S. B. Racette, E. Ravussin, L. M. Redman, R. M. Reynolds, S. B. Roberts, L. B. Sardinha, A. M. Silva, E. Stice, S. S. Urlacher, E. A. Van Mil, B. M. Wood, A. J. Murphy-Alford, C. Loechl, A. H. Luke, J. Rood, D. A. Schoeller, K. R. Westerterp, W. W. Wong, H. Pontzer, J. R. Speakman, L. F. Andersen, L. J. Anderson, L. Arab, I. Baddou, B. Addo, S. Blanc, A. Bonomi, C. V. C. Bouten, P. Bovet, S. Branth, N. C. De Bruin, N. F. Butte, L. H. Colbert, S. G. Camps, A. E. Dutman, S. D. Eaton, U. Ekelund, S. Entringer, C. Ebbeling, S. Elmståhl, M. Fogelholm, T. Forrester, B. W. Fudge, T. Harris, R. Heijligenberg, A. H. Goris, C. Hambly, M. B. Hoos, H. U. Jorgensen, A. M. Joosen, K. P. Kempen, M. Kimura, W. Kriengsinyos, E. V. Lambert, C. L. Larsson, N. Lessan, D. S. Ludwig, M. McCloskey, A. C. Medin, G. A. Meijer, E. Matsiko, A. Melse-Boonstra, J. C. Morehen, J. P. Morton, T. A. Nicklas, D. L. Pannemans, K. H. Pietiläinen, R. M. Philippaerts, R. A. Rabinovich, J. J. Reilly, E. M. Rothenberg, A. J. Schuit, S. Schulz, A. M. Sjödin, A. Subar, M. Tanskanen, R. Uauy, G. Valenti, L. M. Van Etten, R. V. D. Berg-Emons, W. G. Van Gemert, E. J. Velthuis-te Wierik, W. W. Verboeket-van de Venne, J. A. Verbunt, J. C. K. Wells, G. Wilson

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Lower ambient temperature (Ta) requires greater energy expenditure to sustain body temperature. However, effects of Ta on human energetics may be buffered by environmental modification and behavioral compensation. We used the IAEA DLW database for adults in the USA (n = 3213) to determine the effect of Ta (−10 to +30°C) on TEE, basal (BEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity level (PAL). There were no significant relationships (p > 0.05) between maximum, minimum and average Ta and TEE, BEE, AEE and PAL. After adjustment for fat-free mass, fat mass and age, statistically significant (p < 0.01) relationships between TEE, BEE and Ta emerged in females but the effect sizes were not biologically meaningful. Temperatures inside buildings are regulated at 18–25°C independent of latitude. Hence, adults in the US modify their environments to keep TEE constant across a wide range of external ambient temperatures.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2022-Jun-28

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