Interactions between dietary patterns and genetic factors in relation to incident dementia among 70-year-olds

Jessica Samuelsson, Jenna Najar, Ola Wallengren, Silke Kern, Hanna Wetterberg, Madeleine Mellqvist Fässberg, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Lauren Lissner, Elisabet Rothenberg, Ingmar Skoog, Anna Zettergren

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Abstract

Purpose: To investigate potential interactions between dietary patterns and genetic factors modulating risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in relation to incident dementia. Methods: Data were derived from the population-based Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies in Sweden, including 602 dementia-free 70-year-olds (examined 1992–93, or 2000–02; 64% women) followed for incident dementia until 2016. Two factors from a reduced rank regression analysis were translated into dietary patterns, one healthy (e.g., vegetables, fruit, and fish) and one western (e.g., red meat, refined cereals, and full-fat dairy products). Genetic risk was determined by APOE ε4 status and non-APOE AD-polygenic risk scores (AD-PRSs). Gene–diet interactions in relation to incident dementia were analysed with Cox regression models. The interaction p value threshold was < 0.1. Results: There were interactions between the dietary patterns and APOE ε4 status in relation to incident dementia (interaction p value threshold of < 0.1), while no evidence of interactions were found between the dietary patterns and the AD-PRSs. Those with higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern had a reduced risk of dementia among ε4 non-carriers (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61; 0.98), but not among ε4 carriers (HR: 0.86; CI: 0.63; 1.18). Those with a higher adherence to the western dietary pattern had an increased risk of dementia among ε4 carriers (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05; 1.78), while no association was observed among ε4 non-carriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.81; 1.21). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that there is an interplay between dietary patterns and APOE ε4 status in relation to incident dementia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Early online date2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Neurology (30207)
  • Neurosciences (30105)

Keywords

  • Apolipoprotein E genotype
  • Dementia
  • Dietary pattern
  • Nutrition
  • Polygenic risk score

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