Latent patterns of caffeine use among adolescents and its association with insomnia

Clara Sancho-Domingo, Annika Norell , Pernilla Garmy

Research output: Contribution to conferencePosterpeer-review


The use of caffeine has increased among adolescents in recent years which may have an
impact on the quality of sleep and development of insomnia. This study aimed to identify the
different profiles of caffeine use and their association with insomnia severity.

Materials and Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted including 1404 Swedish adolescents aged 15–17
years (56.3% girls). Current use of coffee, tea, and energy drinks was assessed, as well as
insomnia with the Minimal Insomnia Symptoms Scale (MISS). Latent Class Analysis (LCA), and
multivariate analyses were conducted.

The sample’s global score on MISS was 5.8 (SD=2.3), with 48.9% (n=687) experiencing
insomnia. The LCA revealed a better fit for a three-class model classified as: 1) Low Probability
Caffeine Use (28.1%; n=393) characterized by sporadic use of coffee or tea; 2) Caffeinated
Soda Use (55.2%; n=784) related to high soda use weekly; and 3) Mixed Caffeine Use (16.7%;
n=227) where diverse caffeine products are used daily including soda and energy drinks.
Among these classes, a greater percentage of individuals with insomnia was observed in the
Mixed Caffeine class (58.4%; n=132; p=0.005). Compared with the Low Probability class, the
Caffeinated Soda class and the Mixed Caffeine class were significantly associated with
difficulties falling asleep (OR=1.3 and OR=1.7 respectively), with the latter also exhibiting
greater daytime dysfunction (OR=1.4).

Adolescent patterns of excessive caffeine consumption may pose potential hazards to the
quality of sleep. The results underscore the need for examining in future studies how
preventing inappropriate caffeine intake can contribute to reducing symptoms of insomnia
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2024
EventInternational Pediatric Sleep Association: International Pediatric Sleep Association - Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 2024-Apr-262024-Apr-28


ConferenceInternational Pediatric Sleep Association
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom
Internet address

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Health Sciences (303)


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