Lifestyle behaviours and bone mineral density changes among healthy young women: a tentative salutary model

Carina Elgán, Bengt Fridlund

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim was to investigate, by means of a salutogenic approach, bone mineral density (BMD) and changes in BMD over a two-year period in a group of women in relation to lifestyle behaviours and to explore their perceptions of these behaviours. The method used was multiple and sequential triangulation. Over the two years, 62% had decreased/unchanged BMD, while 38% had increased their BMD. Self-rated sleep satisfaction explained 3% of the variability in BMD and women who reported greater satisfaction with their sleep were more likely to have a healthier lifestyle. Time spent outdoors may moderate the negative influence of smoking. Women's views on lifestyle behaviours were characterised by a number of interrelated dimensions; motivation, goals, actions and strategies. Women with a relaxed outlook on life had increased BMD while women with a rigid outlook on life had decreased their BMD irrespective of smoking and physical activity. Women with a rigid outlook on life viewed actions such as lifestyle habits as a means to an end while respondents with a relaxed outlook on life, the enacted lifestyle behaviours were a goal in themselves. Motivation and sleep may be salutary factors associated with improved BMD. A tentative bio-psychosocial salutary model of the association between motivation, outlook on life, sleep, lifestyle behaviours and BMD is presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-259
Number of pages16
JournalCurrent Women's Health Reviews
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Medical and Health Sciences (3)


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