Looking at the keyboard or the monitor: relationship with text production processes

Roger Johansson, Asa Wengelin, Victoria Johansson, Kenneth Holmqvist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper we explored text production differences in an expository text production task between writers who looked mainly at the keyboard and writers who looked mainly at the monitor. Eye-tracking technology and keystroke-logging were combined to systematically describe and define these two groups in respect of the complex interplay between text production and the reading of one’s own emerging text. Findings showed that monitor gazers typed significantly faster and were more productive writers. They also read their own text more, and they frequently read in parallel with writing. Analysis of fixation durations suggests that more cognitive processing is in use during reading in parallel with writing than during reading in pauses. Keyboard gazers used the left and right cursor keys significantly more. We suggest that this is because they revised their texts in a much more serial mode than monitor gazers. Finally, analysis of the characteristics of the final texts showed no differences between the groups.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)835-851
Number of pages17
JournalReading and Writing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2009-Jun-03
Externally publishedYes

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Specific Languages (60202)


  • Reading during writing
  • Typing
  • Visual attention
  • Keystroke-logging
  • Eye-tracking


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