One important implication for educators is therefore that non-affirmative education is emphatically critical of educational ideas, ideologies, and curricular policies that overemphasise either socialisation to existing norms in society or the fostering of values that form a predetermined future. In school didactics, the contents of teaching are located at the very centre of the teaching/studying/learning process, maintaining a distinction between the content as intended, as practised, as experienced, and as evaluated. A challenge for both didactics and life-world phenomenology is to what extent they contain conceptually satisfying answers to the question of how teaching is seen as related to learning: in other words, how they explain pedagogical interaction as a movement from one ‘shared world’ to another. Conceptualising subject didactics for school settings is thus different from subject didactics aimed for understanding teaching, studying, and learning outside school settings. In philosophy, there are various ways to understand subject-centred and inter-subjectivity based conceptions of subjectivity.