On The London-Lund Corpus 2: design, challenges and innovations

Nele Poldvere, Victoria Johansson, Carita Paradis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


This article describes and critically examines the challenging task of compiling The London–Lund Corpus 2 (LLC–2) from start to end, accounting for the methodological decisions made in each stage and highlighting the innovations. LLC–2 is a half-a-million-word corpus of contemporary spoken British English with recordings from 2014 to 2019. Its size and design are the same as those of the world's first machine-readable spoken corpus, The London–Lund Corpus of Spoken English with data from the 1950s to 1980s. In this way, LLC–2 allows not only for synchronic investigations of contemporary speech but also for principled diachronic research of spoken language across time. Each stage of the compilation of LLC–2 posed its own challenges, ranging from the design of the corpus, the recruitment of the speakers, transcription, markup and annotation procedures, to the release of the corpus to the international research community. The decisions and solutions represent state-of-the-art practices of spoken corpus compilation with important innovations that enhance the value of LLC–2 for spoken corpus research, such as the availability of both the transcriptions and the corresponding time-aligned audio files in a standard compliant format.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-483
Number of pages25
JournalEnglish Language and Linguistics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021-Sep
Externally publishedYes

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Specific Languages (60202)


  • corpus compilation
  • spoken language
  • The London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English
  • XML transcriptions
  • open access


Dive into the research topics of 'On The London-Lund Corpus 2: design, challenges and innovations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this