Risk indicators for mucositis and peri-implantitis: Results from a practice-based cross-sectional study

Sven Rinke, Marc Nordlohne, Andreas Leha, Stefan Renvert, Gerhard Schmalz, Dirk Ziebolz

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Abstract

Purpose: This practice-based cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether common risk indicators for peri-implant diseases were associated with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis in patients undergoing supportive implant therapy (SIT) at least 5 years after implant restoration. 

Methods: Patients exclusively restored with a single implant type were included. Probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), suppuration, and radiographic bone loss (RBL) were assessed around implants. The case definitions were as follows: peri-implant mucositis: PPD >4 mm, BOP, no RBL; and peri-implantitis: PPD >5 mm, BOP, RBL >3.5 mm. Possible risk indicators were compared between patients with and without mucositis and peri-implantitis using the Fisher exact test and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as well as a multiple logistic regression model for variables showing significance (7<0.05). 

Results: Eighty-four patients with 169 implants (observational period: 5.8±0.86 years) were included. A patient-based prevalence of 52% for peri-implant mucositis and 18% for peri-implantitis was detected. The presence of 3 or more implants (odds ratio [OR], 4.43; 95 confidence interval [CI], 1.36-15.05; p=0.0136) was significantly associated with an increased risk for mucositis. Smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk for peri-implantitis (OR, 5.89; 95% CI, 1.27-24.58;P=0.0231), while the presence of keratinized mucosa around implants was associated with a lower risk for peri-implantitis (OR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01-0.25; p<0.001). 

Conclusions: The number of implants should be considered in strategies to prevent mucositis. Furthermore, smoking and the absence of keratinized mucosa were the strongest risk indicators for peri-implantitis in patients undergoing SIT in the present study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-196
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Periodontal and Implant Science
Volume50
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020-Jun

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Dentistry (30216)

Keywords

  • Peri-implantitis
  • Prevalence
  • Risk
  • Smoking

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