The severity of human peri-implantitis lesions correlates with the level of submucosal microbial sysbiosis

A Kröger, C Hülsmann, S Fickl, T Spinell, F Hüttig, F Kaufmann, A Heimbach, P Hoffmann, N Enkling, Stefan Renvert, F Schwarz, Ryan T Demmer, P N Papapanou, S Jepsen, M Kebschull

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIM: To cross-sectionally analyze the submucosal microbiome of peri-implantitis (PI) lesions at different severity levels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microbial signatures of 45 submucosal plaque samples from untreated peri-implantitis lesions obtained from 30 non-smoking, systemically healthy subjects were assessed by 16s sequencing. Linear mixed models were used to identify taxa with differential abundance by probing depth, after correction for age, gender, and multiple samples per subject. Network analyses were performed to identify groups of taxa with mutual occurrence or exclusion. Subsequently, the effects of peri-implant probing depth on submucosal microbial dysbiosis was calculated using the microbial dysbiosis index.

RESULTS: In total, we identified 337 different taxa in the submucosal microbiome of peri-implantitis. Total abundance of 12 taxa correlated significantly with increasing probing depth; a significant relationship with lower probing depth was found for 16 taxa. Network analysis identified two mutually exclusive complexes associated with shallow pockets and deeper pockets, respectively. Deeper peri-implant pockets were associated with significantly increased dysbiosis.

CONCLUSION: Increases in peri-implant pocket depth are associated with substantial changes in the submucosal microbiome and increasing levels of dysbiosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1498-1509
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Swedish Standard Keywords

  • Dentistry (30216)


  • 16s
  • NGS
  • dysbiosis
  • microbiome
  • next generation sequencing
  • peri-implant disease
  • peri-implantitis


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