Rubrics are assessment instruments designed to assist in identifying and evaluating qualitative differences in student performance. Research into scoring rubrics has shown that they can serve two purposes: (1) aid assessors in achieving higher levels of consistency when scoring performance tasks and (2) promote learning and/or improve instruction by making assessment expectations explicit and aiding the feedback process. In this chapter we summarise research on the formative use of rubrics, in order to identify how the use and design of rubrics may be optimised for the purpose of supporting student learning in an environment that often stresses independence and management of own learning. The presentation is organised around two different pathways through which rubrics may support student learning. These are through (a) facilitating the understanding and use of feedback and through (b) supporting students’ self-regulated learning. We also analyse what is known about the implementation of rubrics in higher education, with a particular focus on more sustained and widespread implementations. The implications of these findings for both practice and future research on rubrics are discussed.