This report of MORPHEUS Project Partners documents the outcome of WP3 – consumption patterns. Herein, the project aims to identify and quantify the emission of selected pharmaceuticals especially discharged via wastewater of WWTP. A comprehensive data research was performed and prioritized pharmaceutical consumption loads have been calculated for the model areas in Lithuania, Poland, Sweden and Germany. The outcome of this report can be summarized in the following key facts:
1. Consumption data is based on either sales data of wholesalers/pharmacies or data from health care institutions. The unit of consumption is number of reimbursed packages andDDD, respectively.
2. The resolution and data coverage (only partly including OTC, hospital etc.) is country- specific: The best time-resolution was found in Poland (monthly), the best spatial resolution in Lithuania (population group <3000).
3. Country-specific consumption was comparable by a developed value intake load per inhabitant per year.
4. For Swedish and German data, a comparison of different distributing sites of pharmaceuticals was possible (over the counter sales, application in hospitals, prescriptions/pharmacies).
5. For Lithuanian data, the high spatial resolution enabled a potential correlation with the local demographic data in regard of consumption of beta blocking pharmaceuticals.
6. For Polish data, a seasonal variation can be clearly shown for antibiotics.
7. For German data, an accumulation within the river catchment shows that a complete picture of the whole system is essential to understand the actual burden of pharmaceuticals in the environment.
8. Comparing the model areas, all results have been in the same order of magnitude more or less depending on consumption and doses. Metformin and diverse analgesics revealed high intake loads. In general, mostly German intake loads exceed the others which may lies in the fact that the selection of pharmaceuticals is mostly based on German literature and statistics due to availability/accessibility. An adjustment to each country-specific list may lead to other results.
9. Some substances remain unclear: Contrast media and hormones are still a matter of burden to the environment but caused some difficulties during data collection andresearch.
|European Union Interreg South Baltic Programme
|Publicerad - 2019
- Miljövetenskap (10502)