Pharmaceutical residues affecting the UNESCO biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike wetlands: sources and sinks

Erland Björklund, Ola Svahn, Søren Bak, Samuel Oppong Bekoe, Martin Hansen

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikelPeer review

Sammanfattning

This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

OriginalspråkEngelska
Sidor (från-till)423-436
Antal sidor13
TidskriftArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Volym71
Utgåva3
DOI
StatusPublicerad - 2016

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