Peri-implant and periodontal pockets share a number of anatomical features but also have distinct differences. These differences make peri-implant pockets more susceptible to trauma and infection than periodontal pockets. Inadequate maintenance can lead to infections (defined as peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) within peri-implant pockets. These infections are recognized as inflammatory diseases, which ultimately lead to the loss of supporting bone. Diagnostic and treatment methods conventionally used in periodontics have been adopted to assess and treat these diseases. Controlling infection includes elimination of the biofilm from the implant surface and efficient mechanical debridement. However, the prosthetic supra-structure and implant surface characteristics can complicate treatment. Evidence shows that when appropriately managed, peri-implant mucositis is reversible. Nonsurgical therapy, with or without the use of antimicrobials, will occasionally resolve peri-implantitis, but for the majority of advanced lesions this approach is insufficient and surgery is indicated. The major objective of the surgical approach is to provide access and visualize the clinical situation. Hence, a more informed decision can be made regarding whether to use a resective or a regenerative surgical technique. Evidence shows that following successful decontamination, surgical treatment to regenerate the bone can be performed, and a number of regenerative techniques have been proposed. After treatment, regular maintenance and good oral hygiene are essential for a predictable outcome and long-term stability.
- Odontologi (30216)